A population is stable if it has a large population. Why is the probability of extinction of small populations higher

A population is stable if it has a large population. Why is the probability of extinction of small populations higher than that of numerous?

1) The higher probability of death of small populations from the influence of unfavorable environmental factors than in numerous populations (population waves)
2) In small populations, the connections between its members are weakening, thanks to which the population ensures its existence (sound alarm warning of danger, release of chemicals that affect the change in the habitat of plants)
3) due to the small number of individuals, their reproduction is difficult
4) closely related crossing of individuals in small populations leads to the manifestation of harmful recessive genes. With a high number of individuals, the population is relatively heterogeneous

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