A sign of flight fitness of birds

Hollow bones lighten the body, which is necessary for flight.

Signs Features of the body structure of birds
Body shape Streamlined
Cover Dry skin covered with horn feathers
Types of feathers 1. Contouring – creates a body shape and helps when flying;

2. Feather and down – keep warm

Skeleton Lightweight and durable due to:

– bone fusion (bones of the hand, pelvis, skull)

– air cavities inside the bones. The flying muscles attach to the keel (sternum)

Muscle Large pectoral (lower wings); Subclavian (raise wings)
Digestive system Digestion of food for 2-3 hours (rapid exchange ve societies to maintain body temperature Fasting)

Beak -> pharynx -> esophagus (with goiter) -> stomach (from two departments – muscular and glandular) -> intestine -> cesspool

Respiratory system Cellular light and additional air sacs in the body cavity and bones – to improve gas exchange and protect against overheating. The breath is double.

The main features that allow birds to master the air environment are: – feather cover; – modification of the forelimbs into wings; – warm-bloodedness; – light skeleton; – the presence of a special bone – keel; – double breathing; – shortened intestines; – the absence of one ovary in females; – A well-developed nervous system. These structural features illustrate how birds are adapted to flight.

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