Hollow bones lighten the body, which is necessary for flight.
||Features of the body structure of birds
||Dry skin covered with horn feathers
|Types of feathers
||1. Contouring – creates a body shape and helps when flying;
2. Feather and down – keep warm
||Lightweight and durable due to:
– bone fusion (bones of the hand, pelvis, skull)
– air cavities inside the bones. The flying muscles attach to the keel (sternum)
||Large pectoral (lower wings); Subclavian (raise wings)
||Digestion of food for 2-3 hours (rapid exchange ve societies to maintain body temperature Fasting)
Beak -> pharynx -> esophagus (with goiter) -> stomach (from two departments – muscular and glandular) -> intestine -> cesspool
||Cellular light and additional air sacs in the body cavity and bones – to improve gas exchange and protect against overheating. The breath is double.
The main features that allow birds to master the air environment are: – feather cover; – modification of the forelimbs into wings; – warm-bloodedness; – light skeleton; – the presence of a special bone – keel; – double breathing; – shortened intestines; – the absence of one ovary in females; – A well-developed nervous system. These structural features illustrate how birds are adapted to flight.
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