According to the figurative expression of the domestic botanist Zhukovsky, polyploids are fed and dressed in humans

According to the figurative expression of the domestic botanist Zhukovsky, polyploids are fed and dressed in humans. Explain how you understand it. Describe the basic methods for producing polyploids in breeding work.

Since polyploid forms often have valuable economic traits, artificial polyploidization is used in crop production to obtain initial breeding material. For this purpose, special mutagens (e.g., the alkaloid colchicine) are used that violate the divergence of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. Productive polyploids of rye, buckwheat, sugar beet, and other cultivated plants were obtained; sterile triploids of watermelon, grape, banana are popular due to seedless fruits.
The use of distant hyioridization in combination with artificial polyploidization allowed domestic scientists back in the 1st half, the 20th century. for the first time to obtain prolific polyploid hybrids of plants (G. D. Karpechenko, hybrid tetraploid of radish and cabbage) and animals (B, L, Astaurov, hybrid tetraploid of silkworm).
Existing methods for the artificial production of allopolyploids can be divided into two groups; 1) pollination by non-reducing gametes; 2) induction of mutagens,
With normal meiosis, the chromosomal number in cells decreases from 2 p to 1 p. But sometimes reduction division does not occur, and egg cells or pollen grains with 2 p chromosomes are formed. If a pollen grain with 2 p chromosomes fertilizes an egg with a haploid set of chromosomes, a triploid embryo is formed. In this way, tetraploid aspen is being obtained by pollinating female triploid plants with large triploid pollen grains. By sifting pollen through a thin tissue, large triploid pollen is separated from diploid pollen.
Polyploidy induction, in turn, is carried out in two ways: a) exposure to heat, drying or cold; b) induction by colchicine and podophylline; c) obtaining triploids from seeds. Doubling of somatic chromosomes in this way occurs rather often (in 1% or more dividing cells). The most frequently formed cells with a tetraploid set grow around the tissue, and the plant as a whole remains diploid.

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