We assume that the satellites have no internal energy sources, no atmospheres, and the radiation of Jupiter can be neglected. Obviously, in this case the albedo A will be the main factor determining the surface temperature. The temperature estimate follows from the relation T ^ 4 = (1 -A) E, where T is the surface temperature; o – Stefan – Boltzmann constant; E – illumination at the distance of Jupiter. Based on the above, the temperature of Amalthea and Io should be higher than that of Ganymede and Europa. Io also has a noticeably higher temperature due to strong tidal deformations.
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