At what levels are new gene combinations emerging?

New gene combinations arise at various levels:
1. recombination of genes in the linkage group due to crossing over in prophase I of meiotic division;
2. the divergence of homologous chromosomes from bivalents in the I meiotic division;
3. divergence of daughter chromosomes in the II meiotic division. In total, 2 ^ 46 combinations are formed during meiosis .;
4. fusion of germ cells belonging to different organisms (292 combinations).

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