Can we say that the policy of enlightened absolutism was initially doomed to failure?

Yes, you can say that. As practice shows, Prussia, Austria and Russia were saved from social and economic disasters not by an enlightened government, but by a rather weak development of the capitalist system, incompatible with absolutism, including enlightened.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.