Categories of society (class) of ancient civilizations and their occupations

Categories Position, occupation
Aristocracy They have vast lands at their disposal and have held high government posts.

Ways of obtaining land: a) taken away from communities; b) donated by the king; c) conquered during wars.

Office of officials State administration sector.

Were engaged in: a) tax collection; b) the organization of agricultural work; c) tracking canals and their construction; d) a set of recruits for military campaigns; ) execution of the court.

Merchants Carried out an economic connection (weak) between individual regions.
Warriors On supply from the state, they were involved in work (mining, construction) – in peacetime. They plundered the captured lands, received slaves and land – during the war.
Artisans Free (in cities) – worked for themselves. Dependents (from the king, temples) – worked in workshops, under the whip of an overseer.
Free peasants-communes The rural community is the main production unit and has retained family and kinship ties.
The main economic unit in the community is the patriarchal family:
  Feature: the allotment is the property of the community, it could not be sold. Community members are bound by mutual responsibility.
Responsibilities of the community to the state: – to monitor the state of the irrigation system;
  – drain swamps, build canals; – pay taxes to the state; – supply recruits in case of war. Community membership was a privilege. Features of the community’s way of life: – closed economically (subsistence farming); – the presence of self-government (national assembly); – freedom of religion (own deities and cults); (a person is part of a collective, not an individual; – existence is built on traditions; – a slow process of stratification, the emergence of dependent peasants (they rented land, paid rent, had no right to leave the site).
Special category – slaves Used: – in the household (domestic slaves); – on the lands and in the workshops of temples and palaces; – in mines and construction.

Sources: – wars, debts, self-sales .

Feature: the labor of slaves was complementary in relation to the peasants and artisans, it did not play a decisive role.


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