Civilizational theories of social development (names and essence of the theory)

Title of scientific work, author The essence of the theory
“Russia and Europe”, N. Ya. Danilevsky The cultural-historical type functions like a living organism, isolated in time and space. The course of history is expressed in the change of cultural and historical types
“Comprehension of history”, A. Toynbee Civilization is a culture that has reached the extreme boundaries of self-identification, passing through the stages of genesis, growth, breakdown and decay
“The Decline of Europe”, O. Spengler Civilization is the stage of dying of human culture, which is characterized by a soulless intellect and the transformation of people into a faceless mass


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