Comparative table Differences between industrial and post-industrial society in the field of political development

  Formation of an industrial society The heyday (maturity) of an industrial society The decline of the industrial and the formation of the post-industrial society
Period XVIII century. – the end of XIX in . End of the 19th century – 1960s 1970s – present
Political ideologies Formation of the main political ideologies and parties Confrontation of political ideologies. The emergence of left and right radical ideologies Rapprochement of the main political ideologies. The collapse of left and right radical ideologies
Revolutions and Democracy The era of bourgeois revolutions. The Beginning of Democracy – Expanding Citizens’ Electoral Rights and the Role of Parliaments Recent bourgeois revolutions. Establishment of democracy in a number of countries (universal suffrage and parliamentary republics). Attempts to establish authoritarian and totalitarian regimes Revolutions against authoritarian and totalitarian regimes. Elimination of military dictatorships, authoritarian and totalitarian regimes
Civil society Formation of civil society Limiting the role of civil society by politicizing public life. Attempts by totalitarian regimes to bring civil society under control A celebration of civil society and its new role in protecting the rights and interests of citizens and their groups

The table shows three variants of historical development, three types of historiography and three ways of perceiving the world. Historical development in modern times is moving along three potential lines: a return to the past, the arrangement of the present, the pursuit of the ideal of the future. These three possible lines of development are determined by the main vectors of political struggle in modern times – the struggle of the conservatives to preserve the past, the struggle of liberals to change the present, and the struggle of the socialists for an ideal future. Each of the three main political ideologies offers its own version of solutions to pressing problems. Ultimately, the one that meets the challenges of the time and historical traditions is in demand . Recent history is also a confrontation between three types of historiography – antique, monumental and critical. Antique historiography is a careful, antique attitude to heritage, a description of history from the point of view of the importance of preserving the past. Monumental is a demonstration of monumental role models, a description of history in terms of the importance of improving the present. Critical – a judgment on the past, a description of history from the point of view of the possibility of realizing the ideal of the future.

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