||1. The predominance of state, royal, as well as collective, communal ownership of land and other material values over private property as the basis of people’s personal lack of freedom.
2. Subsistence farming prevails and hinders the development of the market
|1. The emergence and strengthening of private ownership of land, other instruments and means of production as the basis of personal freedom of people.
2. Developed commodity-money, market relations between people, regulated mainly by civil (civil) law
||1. The royal power has a despotic, autocratic, hereditary, charismatic character.
2. Management is carried out with the help of a powerful state apparatus: central, regional, local government officials. The principle of appointment from above prevails.
3. The supreme ruler relies on numerous armed forces, personal guards, and other power structures.
4. Large multinational empires are based on violence. War prevails over diplomacy in international relations.
5. The court is based on custom or written law
|1. For the first time, the foundations of democracy, the republican form of government, the principles of organizing collective power are laid.
2. Power is also exercised in the form of a monarchy, oligarchy, and personal dictatorship.
3. The foundations are laid for the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers. A significant part of the officials with power functions are elected by the population, citizens.
4. The military organization is based on the principle of universal military service. The fulfillment of military duty is a civic valor.
5. Political parties, inter-party power struggles, and other elements of civil society appear.
6. The foundations of the rule of law, the judicial system with the involvement of citizens are laid (jury)
|Spiritual and cultural sphere
||1. The highest rulers are deified, the existing religions sanctify the state and political structure.
2. Artistic culture serves the interests of the highest authorities and the clergy.
3. The public consciousness is distinguished by conservatism, patriarchy, obedience to fate
|1. Ancient mythology, pagan religion reflects people’s ideas about higher powers, the belief that one can negotiate with them and even fight.
2. Artistic culture is addressed to a person, shows his physical and spiritual perfection, great opportunities.
3. The public consciousness is characterized by the spirit of competition, creativity, the desire to change life for the better, to challenge fate