Comparative table of the countries of the European Middle Ages and Byzantium

  European Middle Ages (V-XII centuries) Byzantium (395-1453)
Supreme, central authority Kings, emperors, dynastic power is inherited Elected emperors with inherited elements of dynastic rule
Local authority Dukes, Earls, Princes Heads of individual territories
Judicial branch Top and local leaders with community participation Top and local leaders with community participation
Military establishment Rulers’ squads, militias and mercenaries Guards, troops of rulers, militias and mercenaries
Church Christian church led by the pope Christian Church headed by the Patriarch


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