Compare the development of India, China, Japan in the Middle Ages. What are the common features and differences?

In India and Japan, all land was in state ownership, in China there were both state and “people’s” lands. The village community had self-government everywhere. The estates in India were represented by four varnas: brahmanas, kshatriyas, vaisyas and sudras; in China there were privileged and unprivileged estates, in Japan – the estates of warriors, peasants, artisans and merchants. The main religions were: Buddhism in India, Confucianism in China, Shintoism in Japan.

country The main occupations of residents Names of states or dynasties of the Middle Ages The most famous achievements in science and economic activity The most famous achievements in literature and art
China Agriculture, trade, handicrafts, cattle breeding, fishing, hunting Tang Dynasty. Dynasty Song . Mongolian state – Golden Horde Brought out more than 70 varieties of rice, began to publish a newspaper earlier than Europeans, to use a compass in navigation; invented gunpowder, guns in the form of bamboo tubes, metal cannons, porcelain. Determined the length of the meridian degree, discovered spots in the sun, created a calendar, used smallpox vaccinations, acupuncture, acupressure Building pagodas, poetry flourishing; painting on silk and paper, creating paintings on the themes “Mountains and Waters”, “Flowers and Birds”
India Agriculture, craft, trade 70 independent principalities. Delhi Sultanate They grew rice, spices, pumpkin, watermelons, melons, oranges, cultivated cotton, sugar cane, mulberry trees, processed ivory, created finely minted dishes, cotton fabrics. They used the decimal number system, knew how to perform actions with fractions, calculate the area of ​​figures and the volume of bodies. Observatories existed in a number of cities. We performed complex operations using more than 200 surgical instruments The architecture was diverse, including temples carved into the rocks. An architectural masterpiece is the Buddhist temples in Ajanta . The walls were painted with frescoes, the premises were decorated with reliefs, statues and skillful carvings. Artists painted miniatures, portraits
Japan Agriculture, navigation, fishing, piracy The Nars Empire. Shogunate There were schools, including for girls; invented a Japanese script based on Chinese writing (hieroglyphs for letters and syllables). It was believed that an educated person should be able to write poetry, draw and play musical instruments The Japanese theater emerged. A special genre of theatrical performance was created, when only the plot was recorded, and the actors themselves, during the performance, came up with their own movements and texts. The main theme of art is nature and the unity of man with her

 

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.