Asexual reproduction is an ancient form of self-reproduction characteristic of organisms of all kingdoms of living nature. Such reproduction provides the process of self-reproduction of a large number of identical organisms without the participation of germ cells, which is carried out by only one parent. The main property of asexual reproduction is the exact reproduction of the hereditary properties of the parent. Asexual reproduction is also more beneficial in relatively constant conditions.
Sexual reproduction is carried out already with the participation of germ cells from two parent organisms – female and male, which transmit the characteristics of their hereditary material to a new organism. The main feature (condition) of sexual reproduction is fertilization, i.e., the fusion of female and male germ cells (gametes) and the formation of one cell, the zygote. It contains hereditary information from both parents. Each daughter individual developing from a zygote carries the properties of two different organisms of the same species. Therefore, during sexual reproduction, something new always appears in a new organism, which has not yet been encountered in nature, although it is very similar to its both parents. Such organisms with new hereditary properties obtained from both parents often turn out to be more adapted to life in changing environmental conditions. Consequently, the biological significance of sexual reproduction lies not only in the self-reproduction of individuals, but also in ensuring the biological diversity of species, their adaptive capabilities and evolutionary perspectives. This makes sexual reproduction biologically more advanced than asexual.
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