Comparison of allotropic phosphorus modifications

Comparison criteria Phosphorus red Phosphorus white
Common signs
1. Physical properties Solid, crystalline substances
2. Belonging to a certain class of substances Simple substances that are formed by the same element – phosphorus, that is, are its allotropic modifications
3. Chemical properties Non-metals, interact with many simple substances (oxygen, halogens, sulfur, metals) and complex oxidizing substances (berthollet’s salt, nitric acid)
Signs of difference
1. Structure Has an atomic crystal lattice Has a molecular crystal lattice and formula P4
2. Properties The powder is red-brown in color, not poisonous. It does not dissolve in water or carbon disulfide. Does not glow in the dark. Lights up only when ignited White waxy substance. Very poisonous.

It does not dissolve in water, but it dissolves well in carbon disulfide. Glows in the dark. Self-igniting in powder. Therefore, it is kept under water.

Reactions with red phosphorus are less vigorous than with white phosphorus
3. Receiving Heating white phosphorus without air access for several hours at 375 – 400 ° С By calcining a mixture of phosphorites, sand and coal:

2Са3 (РО4) 2 + 10С + 6SiО2 = 6CaSiО3 + Р4 + 10CO

4. Application For the production of matches and phosphate fertilizers For the production of phosphoric acids, in military affairs (napalm, smoke bombs, self-igniting mixtures), for the production of pesticides
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