Comparison of allotropic phosphorus modifications
November 13, 2020
|1. Physical properties
||Solid, crystalline substances
|2. Belonging to a certain class of substances
||Simple substances that are formed by the same element – phosphorus, that is, are its allotropic modifications
|3. Chemical properties
||Non-metals, interact with many simple substances (oxygen, halogens, sulfur, metals) and complex oxidizing substances (berthollet’s salt, nitric acid)
|Signs of difference
||Has an atomic crystal lattice
||Has a molecular crystal lattice and formula P4
||The powder is red-brown in color, not poisonous. It does not dissolve in water or carbon disulfide. Does not glow in the dark. Lights up only when ignited
||White waxy substance. Very poisonous.
It does not dissolve in water, but it dissolves well in carbon disulfide. Glows in the dark. Self-igniting in powder. Therefore, it is kept under water.
|Reactions with red phosphorus are less vigorous than with white phosphorus
||Heating white phosphorus without air access for several hours at 375 – 400 ° С
||By calcining a mixture of phosphorites, sand and coal:
2Са3 (РО4) 2 + 10С + 6SiО2 = 6CaSiО3 + Р4 + 10CO
||For the production of matches and phosphate fertilizers
||For the production of phosphoric acids, in military affairs (napalm, smoke bombs, self-igniting mixtures), for the production of pesticides
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