Describe how nervous and humoral regulation of respiration occurs.

1) The nerve centers that regulate involuntary respiratory movements are located in the medulla oblongata. The respiratory center is bilateral and consists of two functional departments: the center of inspiration and the center of exhalation. There are vital centers (protective reflexes – coughing, sneezing).
2) The nerve centers that regulate breathing arbitrary movement, are in the cerebral cortex – control activity of neurons inspiration and expiration (can arbitrarily make a deep breath, delay or increase in breathing, changes in speaking and singing) because of their influence breathing.
3) Humoral regulation:
– the respiratory center is very sensitive to excess carbon dioxide, which is its main natural causative agent (increases the frequency and depth of breathing);
– adrenaline increases the frequency of respiratory movements during stress.

Regulation Parameters Nervous regulation Humoral regulation
1. Signal Nerve impulse Hormone
2. The nature of the response Fast , addressed to a specific organ, gland Slow, non-specific; affects the body as a whole
3. Signal transmission method Electrochemical through the nerve and through the synapse Chemical, through the blood
4. Method of distribution Along the reflex arc Through the blood vessels
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.