1) The nerve centers that regulate involuntary respiratory movements are located in the medulla oblongata. The respiratory center is bilateral and consists of two functional departments: the center of inspiration and the center of exhalation. There are vital centers (protective reflexes – coughing, sneezing).
2) The nerve centers that regulate breathing arbitrary movement, are in the cerebral cortex – control activity of neurons inspiration and expiration (can arbitrarily make a deep breath, delay or increase in breathing, changes in speaking and singing) because of their influence breathing.
3) Humoral regulation:
– the respiratory center is very sensitive to excess carbon dioxide, which is its main natural causative agent (increases the frequency and depth of breathing);
– adrenaline increases the frequency of respiratory movements during stress.
|2. The nature of the response
||Fast , addressed to a specific organ, gland
||Slow, non-specific; affects the body as a whole
|3. Signal transmission method
||Electrochemical through the nerve and through the synapse
||Chemical, through the blood
|4. Method of distribution
||Along the reflex arc
||Through the blood vessels
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