Congenital forms of behavior (taxis, reflexes, instincts) are useful reactions of the body that have formed and are fixed in the genotype as a result of natural selection. Taxis is a form of spatial orientation of organisms in relation to the source of irritation. If the movement is carried out to the source of irritation – these are positive taxis, if in the opposite direction – negative. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, photo-, thermo-, chemo- and other taxis are distinguished. An example of positive thermotaxis is the accumulation of aquatic invertebrates in the upper, most heated parts of the reservoir. Reflexes are stereotypic reactions of the body to certain effects that occur with the participation of the nervous system. They can be aimed at satisfying the needs of the body for food, water, safety, etc. An example of a reflex form of behavior can be a passive-defensive reflex in animals when they freeze when a predator or an unfamiliar sound appears. Instincts are chains of complex unconditioned reflexes. Instincts arose in the process of evolution as adaptations to the typical conditions for the existence of a species. An example of instinct is the activity of insects, birds and other animals in obtaining food, building nests and breeding offspring
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