Describe the aboveground and underground tiers by the example of forest biocenosis.

The aboveground tier in a deciduous forest usually includes five, sometimes six, plant tiers. The first tier (I tier) is formed by trees of the first magnitude (oak, birch, ash, linden, etc.). The second tier includes trees of the second magnitude (wild apple tree, pear, bird cherry, mountain ash, etc.). Tier III is an undergrowth of shrubs (hazel, buckthorn, euonymus, juniper, viburnum, elderberry). Tier IV is represented by tall herbs and shrubs (ferns, nettles, celandine, heather, ledum, etc.). The fifth tier is composed of low herbs and shrubs (blueberries, lingonberries, strawberries, bearberry, lily of the valley, etc.). In some forests, the soil (VI) layer of mosses, mushrooms, and lichens is well represented. Animals are confined to certain tiers of phytocenosis. Underground layering is due to different depths of the root system. Underground tiers include: litter, root space and mineral layer. In the litter, the conversion of dead organic matter to humus (humus) begins. Here are mosses, mushrooms, lichens, ants, beetles, snails, spiders, worms. Soil forms in the root space. The mineral layer (soil-forming substrate) consists of rock and its parts transformed by the activity of microorganisms.

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