Describe the development of the states of the Ancient East and Antiquity according to the plan: a) politics, b) socio-economic development, c) culture.
The form of government was despotism, the ruler had unlimited power and was the owner of all the land. Power was inherited. The ruler had administrative, military, judicial, tax, and economic power. There was a hierarchy of the state apparatus, which helped the ruler in state affairs.
B) socio-economic development
Society was a hierarchy of estates. Each class had its own responsibilities, rights and privileges. The social hierarchy gradually became more complex. Nobles, priests, officials had a high position. Merchants, warriors, artisans, and traders enjoyed privileges. Free farmers constituted the bulk of society. Slaves had the lowest position in society, they were used as servants, forced to hard or dangerous work. In some countries, there was debt slavery, they were turned into slaves for crimes. Slaves were the property of their master, he could dispose of their work and life.