Describe the discoveries that Isaac Newton made.

At the age of 18, Newton entered Cambridge. Galileo, Descartes and Kepler were the scientific support and inspirers of Newton. Newton completed their works, combining them into a universal system of the world. There is a program phrase in Newton’s student notebook: “In philosophy there can be no sovereign, except for the truth … We must erect monuments of gold to Kepler, Galileo, Descartes and write on each one:“ Plato is a friend, Aristotle is a friend, but the main friend – the truth “”.
Through a series of ingenious optical experiments, he proved that white is a mixture of colors in the spectrum. But his most significant discovery during these years was the law of universal gravitation. There is a well-known legend that Newton discovered the law of gravitation by observing an apple falling from a tree branch. For the first time, “Newton’s apple” was mentioned by Newton’s biographer William Stukeley: “After lunch, the weather was warm, we went out into the garden and drank tea in the shade of apple trees. He (Newton) told me that the idea of ​​gravity came to his mind while sitting under a tree in the same way. He was in a contemplative mood when suddenly an apple fell from a branch. “Why do apples always fall perpendicular to the ground?” He thought.
Newton’s discoveries were published 20-40 years later than they were made. He did not publish his first scientific work (October 1666), setting out the foundations of analysis; he was found only 300 years later.
In 1687 the work “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” was published, in which he outlined the law of universal gravitation and the three laws of mechanics. Newton’s method – creating a model of the phenomenon. This approach, which was initiated by Galileo, meant the end of the old physics. A qualitative description of nature has given way to a quantitative one. On this basis, three laws of mechanics were formulated.
In 1704 the monograph “Optics” was published, which determined the development of this science until the beginning of the 19th century. In 1705, Queen Anne elevated Newton to the dignity of knighthood. For the first time in English history, the title of knight was awarded for scientific merit. In the same years, a collection of his mathematical works “Universal arithmetic” was published. The numerical methods presented in it marked the birth of a new discipline – numerical analysis. A new era in physics and mathematics is associated with the work of Newton. He completed the creation of theoretical physics, begun by Galileo, and also developed differential and integral calculus, color theory and many other mathematical and physical theories.

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