Allopatric (geographical) speciation arises as a result of the spatial and territorial isolation of one population or group of populations of a species. For example, individual populations in the range of a species can be separated by mountains, rivers, deserts, freeways, buildings, and other landscape barriers that impede the frequent exchange of genes between populations.
Sympatric (biological) speciation occurs within the range of the original species as a result of biological isolation. It is carried out on the basis of a geographically unified population, which has distinctly distinct forms of individuals. The emergence of new species during sympatric speciation can occur in various ways.
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