Describe the process of interaction of matter with a magnetic field.
In the atoms of paramagnetic substances, the magnetic fields of the electrons are not fully compensated, and the atom turns out to be like a small circular current. In the absence of an external field, these circular microcurrents are oriented arbitrarily, so that the total magnetic induction is zero. An external magnetic field has an orienting effect – the microcurrents tend to orient themselves so that their own magnetic fields are directed in the direction of the induction of the external field. Due to the thermal motion of atoms, the orientation of the microcurrents is never complete. With an increase in the external field, the orientational effect increases, so that the induction of the intrinsic magnetic field of the paramagnetic sample increases in direct proportion to the induction of the external magnetic field. The total induction of the magnetic field in the sample is the sum of the induction of the external magnetic field and the induction of the intrinsic magnetic field that arose in the process of magnetization.