The Hundred Years War is a prolonged military conflict between France and England that began in 1337 and ended in 1453. More precisely, it was a series of military clashes. The name of this longest feud in history appeared at the beginning of the 19th century.
Causes of the war
There were several of them. On the part of France, it was a desire to oust the British from the original French land in Guyenne. The British authorities, on the contrary, sought to defend this province, and at the same time to regain the recently lost rich lands of Normandy and Anjou. Fueled conflict and confrontation over Flanders, which formally belonged to France, but maintained close trade ties with England. I must say that the inhabitants of Flanders did not at all strive to completely go under the rule of the French king and in the future conflict took the side of England.
The Hundred Years War began over the claims made by Edward III for the French throne. In fact, its origins go back to the distant 11th century, when the Duke of Normandy, William, conquered England. He became the king of this country, but at the same time retained his possessions in France. And so it happened that England for a long time owned part of the French lands.
The course of the war
The first stage of the war fell on the period from 1337 to 1360. The French were defeated in all battles, lost the port of Calais and were forced to agree to difficult peace conditions. The main reason for the failure was the backward French army and outdated weapons. Charles V, King of France, realized this and decided to close the gap between his army and the English. He successfully reorganized the army, partially replacing the knights with mercenary infantry, and also put things in order in the tax system. This led to the success of France during the second phase of the Hundred Years War in 1369-80. British troops were driven out of the previously occupied territories to the sea. Now England had already agreed to a truce. The third period of the Hundred Years War (1415-24) fell on a very difficult period for France and ended in complete defeat. Almost the entire territory was in the hands of the enemy. And then the third force entered the war – the French people. A partisan war began. With the appearance of Jeanne d’Arc in the ranks of the militia, the war went well for France and ended in 1453 with the surrender of the British army.