– religious persecution, arbitrariness of the Spanish authorities;
– high taxes to the Spanish treasury, which hindered the development of entrepreneurship;
– the elimination of self-government and the transfer of power to the Spanish royal officials.
Philip II inherited the throne from his father. Unlike his father, he was not close in culture and language to the Netherlands, he grew up in Spain, so the Netherlands met with high taxation, suppression of Protestantism and centralization of power.
One side: 17 provinces, the Republic of the United Provinces supported by France, England and the Ottoman Empire.
The other side: Spanish Empire, Spanish Netherlands, Portugal.
1566 – the uprising of the masses – the beginning of the war of independence.
1572 – the beginning of a general uprising.
1579-1581 – the unification of the seven provinces by the Union of Utrecht (1579); creation of the Republic of the United Provinces (1581).
1609 – victory of the Republic of the United Provinces in the War of Independence.
The feudal order in Holland was destroyed, the lands of the Catholic Church, the king and supporters of the Spaniards were sold. Favorable conditions were formed for the development of trade, industry and banking.
Gradually, Holland has become one of the most developed countries in Europe. She captured many colonies, ruled the seas.