Describe the stages of meiosis. How are homologous and non-homologous chromosomes distributed in meiosis?

Describe the stages of meiosis. How are homologous and non-homologous chromosomes distributed in meiosis? What does this mean for organisms?

Stages, or phases, of the first meiotic division;
Prophase I. Spiralization of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes are parallel to each other and exchange some homologous regions (conjugation of chromosomes and crossing over, as a result of which recombination of genes occurs). The nuclear shell is destroyed, the fission spindle begins to form.
Metaphase I. Pairs of homologous chromosomes are located in the equatorial plane of the cell. A dividing spindle thread joins the centromere of each chromosome. Moreover, each one has only one such that a thread from one pole of the cell is attached to one homologous chromosome, and to the other from the other.
Anaphase 1 Each chromosome from a pair of homologous ones moves to its cell pole. Moreover, each chromosome continues to consist of two chromatids. Telophase I. Two cells are formed containing a haploid set of doubled chromosomes.
Stages, or phases, of the second meiotic division:
Prophase P, Destruction of nuclear shells, fission spindle formation. Metaphase P. Chromosomes are located in the equatorial plane, threads of the fission spindle join them. Moreover, in such a way that two threads are attached to each centromere – one from one pole, the other from the other.
Anaphase II. The chromatids of each chromosome are separated in the region of the centromeres, and each of the pair of sister chromatids goes to its own pole. Tedophase TT. The formation of nuclei, the unwinding of chromosomes, the division of the cytoplasm.
In meiosis, homologous chromosomes always fall into different gametes. Since they can carry traits of different quality, the resulting gametes are not identical in the gene set.
Non-homologous chromosomes diverge into gametes arbitrarily, independently of each other. This is due to the random arrangement of bivalents in meiosis I and their independent divergence in anaphase I. Therefore, the paternal and maternal chromosomes are randomly distributed in gametes. This process, called independent distribution, leads to an increase in the number of gamete types and is the basis of the genetic diversity of organisms capable of sexual reproduction.

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