Describe the structure and principle of action of the organelles of motion.

Flagella and cilia. These are organelles of movement, characteristic both for unicellular organisms (flagellar and ciliates), and for some cells of multicellular organisms (cells of certain epitheliums, spermatozoa). Flagella and cilia are a cylinder, the wall of which is formed by 9 pairs of microtubules; in the center are two axial microtubules. This part is completely or for a greater extent covered with a portion of the outer cytoplasmic membrane. At the base of the organoid, in the outer layer of the cytoplasm, there is a basal (main) body, in which another short microtubule is added to each pair of microtubules forming the outer part of the flagellum or cilia. Thus, the basal body is formed from nine triads of tubules and resembles the component of the cell center – centriole. The movement of the flagella and cilia is due to the sliding of the microtubules of each pair relative to each other, in which a large amount of energy is expended in the form of ATP.

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