it is also a two-membered semi-autonomous organoid of the cell, somewhat larger than the mitochondria. Their sizes are about 3-10 microns, on average 5 microns; therefore, chloroplasts, like mitochondria, are clearly visible under a light microscope. They are green in color, which will give them pigment chlorophyll. The form of chloroplasts of higher plants is oblong, biconvex, but in algae (algae chloroplasts are chromatophores) it can be diverse: cupped (in chlamydomonas), spiral (in spirogyra), semi-ring howl.
The outer membrane of chloroplast is smooth. The inner membrane of chloroplasts forms outgrowths – lamellae, which retain a connection with it. Inside, the chloroplast is filled with stroma, a semi-liquid content similar to the matrix of mitochondria. Membrane structures – thylakoids (disk-shaped sacs with a thylakoid space inside) are immersed in the stroma. They form, as it were, the internal compartments of chloroplasts and are stacked in the form of piles called grains. Each grana is similar to a stack of coins. Grana are interconnected by lamellae.
The process of photosynthesis proceeds in chloroplasts. In the stroma there is also a ring molecule of DNA, RNA, ribosomes, enzymes that synthesize proteins, glucose and other organic substances.
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