Soil moisture is divided into three types: free (gravitational), capillary and film (hygroscopic).
Free water is mobile, fills wide gaps between particles, but is not retained in the soil. It is capable of percolating downward by gravity until it reaches groundwater. Organisms absorb it easily.
Capillary water is held in narrow soil channels by surface tension forces. It can rise to the surface through pores from groundwater, evaporates easily, and is freely absorbed by plants.
Film water in the soil is retained due to hydrogen bonds with soil particles and is practically inaccessible to plants. In clay soils, its content reaches 15%, in sandy soils – 5%. As the film water accumulates, it turns into capillary water.
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