If we stand facing the north, then low above the horizon, a little to the west, we will see the seven stars of the Bucket B. Medveditsa. Continuing the straight line connecting Merak () and Dubhe (), upward, at a distance 5 times greater than the distance between these stars, we will see the Polar Star, the brightest in the constellation M. Medveditsa, very similar to B. Medveditsa.
Constellation above the northern part of the horizon (at the latitude of Moscow)
Two extreme stars in the “tail” of B. Medveditsa – Mizar () – and Benetnash () – indicate Arcturus (Bootes), which is about to go under the horizon in the northwest. The constellation Bootes resembles an open parachute in shape. In the northeast, low above the horizon, Capella appeared – the brightest star in the constellation Auriga. The same can be said about other constellations located next to the Auriga in this part of the sky, such as Perseus and Andromeda.
Constellation near the zenith
The most prominent constellation at its zenith is Cygnus; its cruciform shape, stretching along the silvery stripe of the Milky Way, will not allow you to confuse it with others. Nearby, under the northwestern “wing” of the Swan, shines the brightest star of the northern hemisphere of the sky – Vega (Lyra). To the south is the constellation Eagle with the bright star Altair (). Deneb (Swan), Vega and Altair make up the asterism – Summer-Autumn Triangle – the most noticeable group of the brightest stars in the northern hemisphere of the sky. The constellation Hercules is visible to the right of Vega.
On old maps, Hercules was depicted upside down, legs resting on a dragon. The Dragon’s head – an asterism of four faint stars – is located just above the star – the “foot” of Hercules. The chain of faint stars in the constellation Draco winds between Ursa Minor and Ursa Major. The North Star (M. Medveditsa) is easy to find – it is the only relatively bright star in the region north of the Dragon. At the zenith, in the northeast, the constellation Cassiopeia is clearly visible, which is easily recognized by its W-shape. Between Cassiopeia and the Dragon one can distinguish an irregular pentagon of the relatively bright stars of the constellation Cepheus.
Constellations over the southern part of the horizon (at the latitude of Moscow)
Above the point to the south, near the horizon, the constellation Capricorn is visible. Slightly to the right, at the very horizon, you can distinguish the constellation Sagittarius. If you mentally continue the straight line directed along the southeastern “wing” of the Swan, then it will point to Markab (Pegasus), one of the four bright stars that make up the noticeable asterism of the Big Square of Pegasus, and then the arc of the constellation andromeda. Under the constellation Pegasus we can clearly distinguish the pentagon of the head of the “western fish” – one of the fish of the constellation Pisces. In the southwest, under the constellation Hercules, low above the horizon, you can see the constellation Ophiuchus, around which the constellation Serpent coiled. In the west, quite high above the horizon, the constellation of the Northern Crown is noticeable – a necklace of relatively faint stars with a bright star Gemma in the center.
Planets: in the first half of the night, Jupiter is clearly visible in the constellation Capricorn.
It can be noted that all other planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Saturn) are visible in the predawn hours.
Moon phases in October: October 11 last quarter
18 october new moon
October 26 first quarter.