Mitosis is an indirect cell division, resulting in the formation of two daughter cells with the same set of chromosomes as in the mother. Mitosis consists of four phases – prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
The mitosis process ensures a strictly uniform distribution of chromosomes between two daughter nuclei, so that in a multicellular organism all cells have exactly the same (in number and in nature) sets of chromosomes. Chromosomes contain genetic information encoded in DNA, and therefore a regular, ordered mitotic process also ensures complete transmission of all information to each of the daughter nuclei; as a result, each cell possesses all the genetic information necessary for the development of all the attributes of the body. In this regard, it becomes clear why one cell, taken from a fully differentiated adult plant, can, under suitable conditions, develop into a whole plant. We described mitosis in a diploid cell, but this process proceeds in a similar way in haploid cells, for example, in cells of the gametophyte generation of plants.
That is, the biological significance of mitosis is that mitosis provides a hereditary transmission of traits and properties in a series of generations of cells during the development of a multicellular organism. Due to the accurate and uniform distribution of chromosomes during mitosis, all cells of a single organism are genetically identical
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