Infectious diseases of the digestive system
One of the most dangerous diseases transmitted through the digestive system is botulism. The disease is caused by a botulinum bacterium. The bacterium enters the digestive system through contaminated food. In the human body, it begins to multiply rapidly. A few hours after infection, abdominal pain, vomiting, and severe headaches begin. The temperature remains normal. If the patient is not helped in time, then the very next day loss of vision, paralysis and death may occur.
The botulinum bacterium lives in the soil and multiplies in an oxygen-free environment, and its spores are resistant to various adverse conditions. The botulism bacterium enters the human body with vegetables, mushrooms, and poor quality canned food.
Dysentery is an infectious disease caused by unicellular parasites (amoeba) or bacteria (dysentery bacillus) that invade the wall of the colon. Dysenteric amoeba, entering the body with water or food, affects the mucous membranes of the large intestine. This amoeba can be carried by flies.
Symptoms of dysentery: fever, abdominal pain (usually the pain is localized to the left), diarrhea (diarrhea).
Salmonellosis belongs to infectious diseases. It is caused by the bacteria salmonella. Most often, salmonellosis is infected through eggs, milk, meat. With this disease, frequent bowel movements (diarrhea) are observed, the patient quickly weakens and may die. The disease begins with high fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Another infectious disease is very dangerous – cholera, caused by a bacterium – cholera vibrio. Cholera infection occurs when drinking or swallowing water when swimming in polluted water bodies, as well as when washing dishes with contaminated water. Infection can occur through eating food that is contaminated during storage or washing, as well as through contaminated hands. In addition, cholera vibrios can be carried by flies.
Worm diseases (helminthiasis)
The causes of worm diseases are non-observance of hygiene rules and the use of food contaminated with worm eggs.
Worms, or helminths, are parasitic worms (belonging to the Types of Flat or Round worms) that live in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Worms can damage the intestines and release substances that are toxic to the host. The most common species are roundworm and tapeworms (bovine and pork tapeworms).
Ascaris is a round worm that lives in the human intestine, its length reaches 35 cm. Ascaris larvae develop in the intestine and through the hepatic vein enter the liver, heart, trachea, larynx, pharynx, and then they return to the intestine, where they turn into adults. Roundworms cause abdominal pain, vomiting, and even appendicitis. Ascaris larvae entering the lungs can cause pneumonia.
The larvae of the flatworm – pork tapeworm (as well as bovine tapeworm) – can develop in human muscles, causing serious diseases.
Worms have a very high fertility, their eggs can remain viable for a long time in the external environment.
Diseases of the stomach and duodenum 12
Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which, due to various reasons (bacteria, mental trauma, improper medication, etc.), cannot cope with the effects of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach.
Launched untreated gastritis can lead to stomach ulcers. An ulcer is a violation of the integrity of the inner mucous membrane of the stomach. With exacerbations, an ulcer can lead to perforation, i.e., complete destruction of the stomach wall and the formation of a through hole.
Duodenal ulcer (in that part of it that is adjacent to the stomach) is also common.
Diseases of the liver and gallbladder
Liver disease is often caused by poor diet. One of the liver diseases is hepatitis. A characteristic sign of hepatitis is jaundice: the patient’s skin turns yellow, as the liver cannot cope with the destruction of certain substances.
There are many causes of hepatitis, but most often it is caused by infection with viruses. The causative agents of this disease are quite resistant to various external influences and are dangerous only for humans. After eliminating the cause of hepatitis, the liver can regenerate, that is, restore damaged areas.
Sometimes gallstones form in the gallbladder. The stones irritate the walls of the gallbladder and can cause inflammation (acute cholecystitis). Stones can also lead to inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). In case of recurring inflammatory processes, the stones are removed surgically.