Echelons of modernization at the beginning of the 19th century

Comparison criteria – echelon USA, UK, France, Holland, Scandinavian countries II-echelon Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Austria – Hungary III- echelon Latin American countries, colonial and semi-colonial countries
Start of modernization Early. Completion of the industrial revolution in the 19th century . Later ( XVIII century ) Completion of the industrial revolution in the XIX century . Later ( late XIX century – XX century )
Transition path Revolutionary Reformist Both ways are possible, some countries forcibly entered into modernization
Key factors Internal factors. The prerequisites for modernization were ripening in the economic sector. Internal , but influenced from the outside. The prerequisites for modernization are not ripe. From outside
The pace Fast, unforced Fast, forced Slow
Character Natural Catching up Catch-up violent


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