Estimate at what latitude the Earth can experience a total solar eclipse with the maximum possible duration.

A total solar eclipse with the maximum possible duration (up to 7.5 minutes) can be observed when the Earth is in aphelion and the angular diameter of the Sun is minimum, that is, in the first half of July. The duration of the full phase is the longer, the closer we are to the Moon, that is, the higher the Moon is above the horizon. In early July, the declination of the Sun is 22 ° -23 °, and it is at these latitudes in the northern hemisphere that the Sun and Moon may be at their zenith during an eclipse. On the other hand, the duration of the full phase increases towards the equator, where the observer’s speed is greater due to the Earth’s rotation, directed in the same direction as the speed of the lunar shadow, and partially compensating for this speed. The superposition of both factors leads to the fact that the longest total solar eclipses are observed approximately halfway between the equator and the northern tropic (more precisely, at a latitude of 9 ° -10 °) and are visible at an altitude of about 76 ° -78 ° above the northern horizon.

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