The device of this element consists of only two semiconductor layers, in the role of which germanium or silicon is often used. The first of them has n-type conductivity (negative), and the second has p-tin conductivity (positive). On their border, the so-called “p-n” -junction is formed. In this case, the “p” zone acts as the anode, and the “p” area – as the cathode. Thanks to this arrangement, the semiconductor diode contains free particles of opposite charges. In the “p” layer there are positive ions, which are called “holes”, and in the “n” layer – negatively charged free electrons. If “plus” is applied to the cathode, and “minus” to the anode. unipolar charges will begin to bend, particles will move at the transition boundary between the zones and the semiconductor diode will begin to pass current. But as soon as the polarity of the connection is changed, the ions will be drawn to the minus, and the electrons will drift to the plus, and as a result, there will be no charge carriers in the “pn” junction. Any movement inside such an element will stop and the electric current will stop. In this state, the semiconductor diode is closed.
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