Explain the mechanism of forced movement of people. What are the hazards in an emergency evacuation?

The process of forced movement of people consists in the fact that they simultaneously begin to move and fill the passageways. Some of them exert physical strength to accelerate their movement. Some evacuated, most often located in the middle of the stream, are not able to change the movement and are forced to passively follow the general stream. The density of people in this case is so significant that the general flow can captivate a person, even if he does not touch the ground with his feet. An essential feature of the movement of people during emergency evacuation is that this movement can be carried out under adverse conditions: exposure to high temperatures, toxic products of combustion and decomposition, smoke, etc. In this case, panic can simultaneously affect all or most of those evacuated and induce them get away from the source of danger as soon as possible.
The main danger factor in an emergency evacuation is the high crowding of the crowd to such an extent that serious injuries and loss of life are possible. The compaction of flows is a consequence of the desire of moving people to restrain the pressure of those walking behind, who are trying to move faster to avoid danger.

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