Explain the occurrence of protective and precautionary coloration, as well as mimicry in animals.

Patronizing coloration is widespread in nature. In various birds nesting on the ground (goats, larks, waders), the hatching female, and the other male, are almost indistinguishable from the surrounding background. As a rule, the pigmented egg shell and the color of the chicks also merge with the background of the medium. Many animals are able to change the color of the body depending on the environment – a chameleon, flounder. The effect of patronizing coloring is enhanced if the animal lurks or adopt peculiar postures. For example, a lurking owl or a frozen goat is easily mistaken for a fragment of a dry branch. Often, the protective color is combined with a body shape that resembles environmental elements: branches – stick insects, leaves – butterflies, grasshoppers.
Bright elements of body color – contrasting spots, stripes – are possessed primarily by poisonous animals, including stinging insects (bees, wasps). This is a warning body color, it seems to scream and warn about the dangers or inedibility of such organisms. Reflex avoidance of poisonous food objects is produced in animals extremely quickly, sometimes the first time. Therefore, having tasted a bright animal, the bird will immediately remember its appearance and is unlikely to grab it again. Accordingly, among the poisonous insects mainly survive, which are more different from edible. The more noticeable the poisonous animal, the easier it is to recognize it among other animals.
Among predators, selection favored those individuals who were less likely to make the wrong choice of prey or refuse to hunt for objects with warning colors. As a result, many animals are instinctively alert or frightened when they see creatures with this color. Some non-toxic animals take advantage of this, imitating the color of the poisonous. This phenomenon of imitation is called mimicry. For example, non-toxic ghost flies or glass-moth butterflies are very similar to wasps. It should be noted that mimicry is effective only if the number of poisonous “role models” is superior.

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