Features of modernization and the path of transition of countries at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.

General developmental problems Countries of the “first echelon” of modernization (USA, England, France) Russia and the countries of the “second echelon” (Germany, Italy, Japan) Third tier countries (China, Latin America)
The beginning of the transition to economic modernization Early Relatively later Later
Prevailing factors of development Internal Internal and external External
Elements of traditional society Minimal Significant Significant
The path of transition to modernization Revolutionary Reformed Mixed
Liberal political tendencies Highly developed Absent or minimal Minimal
The pace of modernization Average High Average
Political and social stability Relatively high Low Average
The nature of development Intense, avant-garde Catching up Catching up
The role of the state in the economy Minimal High Significant
Qualitative indicators of socio-economic development High Low Low
The nature of the economy Private capitalist Multistage Multistage


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