Fill in the table “Comparative characteristics of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants”.

Criterion for comparison Class Monocotyledons Class Dicotyledons
Number of cotyledons per seed The embryo consists of one cotyledon (scutellum) adjacent to the endosperm The embryo usually has two cotyledons
Leaves Simple, usually whole-edged, petiolate. Arc or parallel venation Simple and complex. The venation is reticulate (pinnate, fingerlike). Usually the petiole is pronounced
Root character


Usually fibrous, the main root dies off early Usually tap root, the main root is well developed. In some herbaceous forms, the root system is fibrous.
Flower structure The number of flower parts is usually a multiple of three The number of flower parts is usually a multiple of four or five.
Stem Herbaceous, not capable of secondary thickening. No cambium, no clearly differentiated bark and wood Herbaceous or woody. Capable of secondary thickening. There is a cambium. Bark and wood are usually well defined
Conductive tissue structure The conducting bundles are closed. On the cross section of the stem, they are arranged, as it were, randomly. The conducting bundles are open. On the cross section of the stem, they are located in a circle or in the form of a cylinder.
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