Fill in the table “Comparative characteristics of natural and artificial ecosystems”

Comparison criteria natural artificial
Origin Primary natural structural units of the biosphere, formed as a result of long evolution Man-made secondary artificial structural units of the biosphere
Species structure Complex systems with a large species diversity, in which
several species dominate. The species structure is formed under the
influence of environmental factors. Cultural (agricultural) plants are absent
Simplified systems with low species diversity.
They are dominated, as a rule, by one
species of plants or animals cultivated by humans . The species structure is formed both
under the influence of environmental factors, and with the decisive role of man
Sustainability Inherently stable dynamic equilibrium due to self-regulation and a variety of trophic relationships. Food chains are long (3-5 links), and the food
network is complex
Unstable, without the support of a person quickly destroyed. Self-regulation is absent. Food chains are short (2-3 links), the
food chain is simple
Productivity Productivity is determined by the amount of incoming solar energy and the degree of closure of the substance cycle. Productivity is determined by the amount of total energy
(solar energy + energy
introduced by a person) entering the system. It depends
on the technical base and economic opportunities of society.
Substance cycle The cycle of substances is complete and closed. All net primary
products are used by consumers and reducers.
The cycle of substances is incomplete
and open. The main part of the
net primary production in the
form of a crop is taken by a person for livestock
. Substances seized at the level of producers are replenished
at the level of detrital chains in the form of organic (detritus) or mineral fertilizers
Environmental Safety Environmentally safe, are not the source of polluting
Environmentally hazardous, are a source of pollutants. Able to influence the sustainability of natural ecosystems
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