Fill in the table “Comparative characteristics of natural and artificial ecosystems”
April 26, 2020
||Primary natural structural units of the biosphere, formed as a result of long evolution
||Man-made secondary artificial structural units of the biosphere
||Complex systems with a large species diversity, in which
several species dominate. The species structure is formed under the
influence of environmental factors. Cultural (agricultural) plants are absent
|Simplified systems with low species diversity.
They are dominated, as a rule, by one
species of plants or animals cultivated by humans . The species structure is formed both
under the influence of environmental factors, and with the decisive role of man
||Inherently stable dynamic equilibrium due to self-regulation and a variety of trophic relationships. Food chains are long (3-5 links), and the food
network is complex
|Unstable, without the support of a person quickly destroyed. Self-regulation is absent. Food chains are short (2-3 links), the
food chain is simple
||Productivity is determined by the amount of incoming solar energy and the degree of closure of the substance cycle.
||Productivity is determined by the amount of total energy
(solar energy + energy
introduced by a person) entering the system. It depends
on the technical base and economic opportunities of society.
||The cycle of substances is complete and closed. All net primary
products are used by consumers and reducers.
|The cycle of substances is incomplete
and open. The main part of the
net primary production in the
form of a crop is taken by a person for livestock
. Substances seized at the level of producers are replenished
at the level of detrital chains in the form of organic (detritus) or mineral fertilizers
||Environmentally safe, are not the source of polluting
|Environmentally hazardous, are a source of pollutants. Able to influence the sustainability of natural ecosystems
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