|Terms of the San Stefano Peace Treaty
||Terms of the Berlin Congress
| – independence of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania – the creation of autonomous Bulgaria – the return of Russia to Southern Bessarabia and the accession of Batum , Kars and Ardagan
|| – the acquisitions of Serbia and Montenegro are cut back – Bulgaria is divided into three parts – Austria occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina – England occupied Cyprus – Russia received South . Bessarabia and territories in Transcaucasia
The difference between the terms of the San Stefano Treaty and the Berlin Conference is explained not by the anti-Russian conspiracy of European states, but by the inconsistency of Russia itself. In 1877, during the Constantinople Conference, Russia signed a written agreement with Austria-Hungary, guaranteeing its neutrality in exchange for the right to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and preventing the creation of a large Slavic state in the Balkans. At the conclusion of San StephenRussia “forgot” its obligations, which led to an aggravation of relations and gave rise to Austria-Hungary, supported by England, to demand a review of the terms of this agreement. With the mediation of Prussia, a Berlin conference was convened at which England and Austria demanded that Russia fulfill the conditions of the 1877 convention. As a result, the conditions of the Berlin Conference almost exactly corresponded to the conditions of the Russian-Austrian convention of 1877, and England occupied Cyprus under an agreement with Turkey, which pledged to protect Turkey from further Russian expansion in the Caucasus.
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