Sudden careless movements, falls, impacts can lead to damage to bones and joints.
Closed injuries that damage soft tissues and cause swelling or bruising (bruising) are called bruises. This is the most common type of domestic injury.
Severe bruises can damage internal organs: liver, spleen, kidneys.
Dangerous consequences can be with a head injury. A concussion may occur with severe bruising. If a person vomits, he loses consciousness, then he must be immediately taken to a doctor on a stretcher.
First aid for sprains and dislocation of joints
In a person, when performing awkward movements in everyday life or sports, with impacts and heavy loads, during a fall, a sprain of the ligament connecting the joint may occur, or even its rupture.
When stretching, swelling occurs, soreness in the joint area, bruising is possible.
First aid for stretching should be provided as soon as possible. An ice pack or a towel soaked in cold water is applied to the damaged area. Local cooling relieves pain, prevents the development of edema, and reduces internal bleeding. It is also necessary to fix the stretch with a tight bandage.
Abrupt, careless movements can lead to dislocation. With dislocation, the location of the bones in the joint is disturbed – the head of one bone jumps out of the glenoid cavity of the other.
The dislocation is accompanied by severe pain, the joint swells. A bruise may appear.
A cold compress and a tight bandage should be applied to the injured joint to reduce pain. Do not stretch, pull or heat the injured limb. After receiving first aid, the victim should consult a doctor.
With injuries, strong blows, falls, bones can break, that is, bone fractures can occur. Fractures of the limb bones occur more often.
If the fracture does not damage the skin and muscles, then such a fracture is called closed. If, as a result of a fracture, the integrity of the skin and soft tissues is disturbed, then they speak of an open fracture.
If the fracture is open, then first stop the bleeding and protect the wound with a sterile bandage, otherwise pathogenic bacteria can enter the body.
When the bones of the arm or leg are broken, a splint is applied. Pieces of plywood, cardboard, tubes, etc. can be used as a splint. The splint is applied so that it grips the joints above and below the fracture site. To prevent the tire from pressing on the fracture site, a soft pad should be placed under it. If it is not possible to find material for the splint at the scene of the accident, it is recommended to bandage the broken leg to the healthy leg and the arm to the torso.
Then the victim must be quickly taken to a doctor.
If the ribs are broken, there is no way to apply a splint. The victim is offered to make a deep exhalation and the chest is tightly bandaged with a towel. After such a constriction, breathing should be calm.
In case of injuries to the skull, the victim is placed on his back, his head is slightly raised to avoid intracranial hemorrhage, and a doctor is immediately called. When transporting the patient, they try to ensure the immobility of the head.
If the spine is injured, the victim is placed on a flat hard surface (shield) face down and an ambulance is called.
The victim is transported only in a supine position, since during transportation in a seated position, the vertebrae can move and damage the spinal cord.