A person’s health is largely determined by his diet. Food should be varied, it should contain proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral salts necessary for a person (to provide the body with everything it needs).
Adequate nutrition provides for the correspondence of energy costs to their replenishment. The average daily requirement for proteins is approximately 100–150 g, for carbohydrates – 400–500 g, and for fats – about 80 g.
An important condition for normal digestion is moderation in food.
Saturation signals, indicating that the stomach is full of food, arrive at the brain with a delay of about 20 minutes, so if you eat very quickly, there is a danger of overeating. In addition, too much food is a great burden on the digestive organs. That is why you need to eat several times a day, slowly and little by little. It is best to eat four times a day, with most of the food consumed in the morning (at breakfast and lunch). Breakfast should contain about 25% of the total daily food, lunch – about 50%, afternoon tea – 15%, dinner – 10%.
If the food is tasty, smells good and looks attractive, more digestive juices are secreted in the gastrointestinal tract, and the food is better and faster digested and absorbed.
It is best to keep food warm (but not hot, as temperatures above 50 ° C can damage the mucous membranes of the mouth and esophagus). The sharp alternation of hot and cold food leads to microcracks on the enamel of the teeth and its destruction over time.
Some foods cannot be consumed in large quantities. These are fatty foods, hot spices, chips, vinegar, alcohol, etc.
It is better to drink dry food with water, since the digestion of such food is difficult and the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach can be damaged.
Gastrointestinal infections are called diseases of dirty hands for a reason. Failure to comply with hygiene rules when processing and preparing food can cause intestinal diseases. Various pathogens that cause cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, etc., can enter the body with food.
Infection with intestinal diseases also often occurs through wastewater entering drinking water bodies (wells, rivers).
Insects, such as flies and cockroaches, can carry the causative agents of intestinal diseases.
Some pathogens are transmitted through objects used by the patient (or on hands if they are not washed before eating).
Good food hygiene reduces the likelihood of contracting gastrointestinal infections.
Food hygiene standards:
- follow the rules of sanitation when preparing food.
- Hands and utensils must be clean.
- Do not eat foods that have passed the expiration date.
- Fruits and vegetables must be thoroughly washed and rinsed with boiled water.
The human digestive tract has protective mechanisms to combat the causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases (in saliva – lysozyme, in the stomach – hydrochloric acid, in the intestine – bile). If the action of these substances is not enough (there are microorganisms that are insensitive to them), then antibiotics are used to treat intestinal infections, which are prescribed by a doctor (along with pathogens, antibiotics also kill beneficial bacteria, such as E.coli, which can cause serious disturbances in the digestive process).
First aid for food poisoning
Eating poor quality foods can lead to food poisoning. Such poisoning is very dangerous, as it can lead to liver damage, impaired blood circulation and breathing.
In case of poisoning, the head is spinning, pains in the abdominal cavity, diarrhea and vomiting appear.
When signs of poisoning appear, it is necessary to quickly remove food from the stomach by washing the stomach. To do this, the victim needs to drink several glasses of warm water and induce vomiting, irritating the root of the tongue with a teaspoon (or fingers).
You can also give a laxative or give an enema to quickly remove the unabsorbed poison.
In case of severe poisoning, in case of respiratory or cardiac arrest, artificial respiration and chest compressions should be used. Then the patient needs to put a heating pad to his hands and feet (not on his stomach!) And give a plentiful drink. It is imperative to call a doctor.