Mendel grew plants from hybrid pea seeds that, as a result of self-pollination, produced second-generation seeds. Among them were not only yellow, but also green seeds, i.e., the offspring split into two groups, one of which possessed a dominant trait, and the second recessive. Moreover, this splitting was not accidental, but obeyed strict quantitative laws:
3/4 of the seeds were yellow and 1/4 of the green. Thus, Mendel established that in the second generation of hybrids individuals with dominant and recessive characters appear, and their ratio is 3: This regularity was called the law of splitting, and later the second law of Mendel. Subsequent studies have established that Mendel’s laws are universal in nature for diploid organisms that reproduce sexually.
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