General characteristics of the era of early antiquity of ancient Eastern countries (late 4th – late 2nd millennium BC)

• Chronological boundaries of the early Antiquity period practically coincide with the Bronze Age – the main material for the manufacture of tools;
• The first states appeared in the valleys of the rivers Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, where it was possible to create irrigation (irrigation) systems – the basis of irrigated agriculture. In the valleys of these rivers, people were much less dependent on natural conditions and received stable harvests;
• The most important function of the first states was the construction of irrigation complexes, which required the joint work of a large number of people, its clear organization
• In the III millennium BC. large tsarist farms became the main economic unit;
• The natural type of production prevailed in the economy;
• Trade relations developed within isolated regions (Egypt, Mesopotamia, India) and existed in the form of exchange;
• The beginning of the process of formation of a patriarchal type of slave relations (in contrast to the ancient states, where there was classical slavery).

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