General characteristics of the heyday of ancient states (late II – late 1st millennium BC)

• the period of the emergence of world powers or empires, which, in comparison with the states of early antiquity, represented more solid associations with central government and a single internal policy;
• Despotism as a form of government reached the greatest development;
• in the world powers, the rural area gradually became part of the public sector, the communal sector of the economy remained in the cities, where along with the central government there were self-government bodies;
• slave labor began to prevail in handicraft production in cities;
• agriculture has traditionally been occupied by communal peasants, although slave labor began to be used much more widely, especially by the state;
• The most important distinction of the 2nd stage of antiquity in the economic sphere is the active use of iron and steel;
• iron tools of labor increased labor productivity, which contributed to the development of agriculture, handicrafts, the growth of commodity production and monetary systems (in the form of coins);
• development of international trade, which included India, China, Central Asia and the south of the Arabian Peninsula;
• a consequence of the development of TAR is the emergence at the end of the stage of private land ownership (along with state and community), the land turned into an object of purchase and sale;
• large private farms began to dominate in the economies of most countries.

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