Give a classification of mutations by the level of changes in the hereditary material.

According to the level of changes in the hereditary material, the following types of mutations are distinguished:
1. Genomic mutations – changes in the karyotype, multiple (3p, 4p, 8p …) and non-multiple (2p ± 1; 2p 2 …) to the haploid number of chromosomes. For example, with Down’s disease, three chromosomes of the 21st pair are present in the karyotype.
2. Gene, or point-to-point mutations – changes caused by the replacement, loss or insertion of one or more nucleotides within the same gene. They entail a change in the structure of proteins, which consists in the appearance of a new amino acid sequence in the polypeptide chain.
3. Chromosomal mutations – a change in the structure of chromosomes. These mutations can occur due to the loss of the chromosome of its part or the acquisition of a new, uncharacteristic for it site, which can lead to the death of the body.

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