Allopatric speciation (geographical) is the occurrence of various geographical barriers between species populations – mountains, seas, deserts, glaciers, etc. The most striking examples of geographic speciation are complexes of closely related species forming circular habitats. Hawaiian flower girls: the parrot flower girl species feeds on seeds and berries, the sickle-beak species extracts insects from under the bark of trees, the crested flower girl species eats nectar of flowers.
Sympatric speciation (ecological) is the emergence of new species within the original range. Sympatric speciation (ecological) includes:
-Polyploidization (the new form that arose in the same way will be reproductively isolated from the parent species, but due to self-fertilization it can leave offspring, for example, polyploid potatoes of the 24, 48, 72 chromosomes).
Hybridization (new hybrids may occur during hybridization, followed by doubling the number of chromosomes, for example, cherry plum + turn = plum).
-Chromosomal rearrangements (chromosomal speciation is possible in those groups of animals that are capable of same-sex reproduction – parthenogenesis, for example, fire salamander).
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