Highlight the features of the emerging national states of Europe in the XVI-XVII centuries.

1) England and France turned into centralized monarchical states;
2) Germany and Italy retained feudal fragmentation, in the state formations of which local rulers actually turned into absolute monarchs;
3) Venice, Switzerland and the Netherlands became republics, which was very rare in those days.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.