How are distances to other galaxies measured?

In 1924, American astronomers Edwin Hubble and J. Richey, using the largest telescope at that time with a mirror diameter of 2.5 m, first obtained a photograph of the Andromeda nebula, which showed that it consisted of many stars. Among these stars, Cepheids were discovered and the distance to the Andromeda nebula was determined from them.

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