How can you explain the failure of repeated attempts to carry out reforms in the Ottoman Empire? What hindered the consistent implementation of reforms?
The lagging behind of the Ottoman Empire from the leading European powers forced Sultan Abdul Majid to start tashimat – a “policy of reforms” (1839). The army was reorganized again, the financial system and taxation were streamlined. At first, the reforms reflected. the interests of the merchant bourgeoisie moved slowly, meeting resistance from landowners. But from the mid-1850s. tanzimat was carried out more actively. The agrarian law of 1858 made the peasants formally free, but did not provide them with land. True, this law made it possible to rent and buy land, but only wealthy peasants, that is, a minority, could use this right. The rulers of the Ottoman Empire themselves, as before, focused on the army. Sultan Mahmud TI (ruled 1808-1839) spent in the mid-1820s vols. another reform of the army. Regular units were strengthened, which began to form even under Selim III. This led “to an exacerbation of the internal crisis in the empire. The fact is that the soldiers of the new formations were assigned a very high monetary and natural allowance. The Janissaries, dissatisfied with this, raised a riot (July 1826), which was brutally suppressed by the new army. As a result, the elimination However, at the opening of the conference, the Turks suddenly announced that a constitution was being introduced in the empire that would guarantee equality to all its subjects, including Christians.
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