Already at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. in different Western European countries there was a different level of industrial development. Ahead were the countries where bourgeois revolutions had already taken place – England and France – and a new, more progressive political system was established. At the same time, Italy and Germany still had to resolve the issue of unification and formation of independent states. And the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Montenegrins, Serbs, Croats) and Greece waged a national liberation struggle against the Ottoman Empire. For these countries, the industrial revolution and the further process of modernization were not a primary economic task.
||I – echelon
England, France, Holland, Scandinavian countries
Germany, Italy, Austria – Hungary
|Start of modernization
||Early. Completion of the industrial revolution in the 19th century .
||Later ( XVIII century ) Completion of the industrial revolution in the XIX century .
||Internal factors. The prerequisites for modernization were ripening in the economic sector.
||Internal , but influenced from the outside. The prerequisites for modernization are not ripe.
Thus, the unevenness of the modernization process in various European countries can be explained by the peculiarities and internal factors characterizing the countries, such as: culture, mentality, worldview, the emergence of national centralized states, the emergence of bourgeois relations, namely, capitalist cooperation and manufacture, the formation of nations, the development of industrial revolutions, the destruction of traditional hereditary privileges and the introduction of equal civil rights, the democratization of society, the formation of national sovereign states, etc.